Endemic in 50 countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Haiti. Remains a global threat to public health.
Transmission occurs by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The bacteria can easily attach to the shells of shellfish, crabs, and shrimps, which can be a source of human infection when eaten raw.
The incubation period is between 2 hours and 5 days.
Cholera is often mild or without symptoms, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated; severe acute watery diarrhea with rapid dehydration and a mortality rate that can reach 50-75%.
Serious, if left untreated:
Primary treatment is hydration. Start oral rehydration solution (ORS) immediately. Antibiotic treatment recommended only for severely-ill patients with severe dehydration.
Isolation of culture of stool specimens is the gold standard.
CDC. Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection. October 30, 2020. https://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html