Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)
Coronaviruses make up a large family of viruses, some of which cause illness in humans
COVID-19 is the name of the respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2
Transmission occurs via droplet and contact. Most commonly spread from an infected person through:
Coughing and sneezing
Close personal contact, touching, or shaking hands
Touching something with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands.
Airborne spread is NOT known to occur outside of aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMPs)
Intubation and extubation procedures
High frequency oscillary ventilation
Bronchoscopy and Bronchoalveolar lavage
Positive pressure ventilation: BIPAP, CPAP
High-flow heated humidity oxygen therapy (e.g. AIRVO, OptiFlow) (NOTE: Non-humidified oxygen delivered through nasal prongs and/or non-rebreather masks are NOT an AGMP, regardless of flow rate)
CPR with bag valve mask ventilation
Tracheostomy insertion/care**/tube change/decannulation (care does not include dressing changes or tie changes)
Nasopharyngeal aspirates, washes and scopes (not a nasopharygeal swab)
Autopsies involving respiratory tissues
Open airway suctioning
Break in closed ventilation system
Administration of nebulized medications: Avoid the use of nebulizer if possible. Use of alternatives such as meter-dose inhaler with spacer are preferable
Cough or worsening of a previous cough
Shortness of breath or other respiratory symptoms
Nasal congestion/runny nose
Loss of sense of smell or taste
Red, purple or blueish lesions, on the feet, toes or fingers without clear cause
Hospitalization is not required for mild presentations unless there is concern for rapid deterioration, an inability to return promptly to hospital, or a Public Health contraindication.
Patients should be aware of potential progression in symptoms and when / how to seek medical attention.
Confirm there are no Public Health contraindications to discharge (e.g. homeless, living in a group home or shelter, cohabitation with a high−risk individual without ability to self−isolate in the home).
Review follow up process by Public Health.
Review self-isolation practices and principles of personal hygiene with patient and family.
Infection Prevention and Control
Any inpatient with persistent respiratory symptoms or pneumonia on imaging, in the absence of a confirmed alternative diagnosis, strong consideration should be given to maintaining contact and droplet precautions in consultation with Infection Prevention and Control