Motile, comma-shaped, gram-negative bacilli
The gastrointestinal tracts of domestic and wild birds and animals are reservoirs.
Transmission occurs by ingestion of contaminated food or water or by direct contact with fecal material from infected animals or people.
Immunoreactive complications can occur:
Treatment can shorten the duration of illness and excretion of susceptible organisms and prevent relapse when given early in gastrointestinal tract infection.
Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones.