Anaerobic spore forming gram positive bacilli, box-car shaped
Nosocomial more common than community onset diarrhea usually after taking antibiotics.
Can occur in outbreaks.
Recurrence is very common therefore previous history of C. difficile is a risk factor.
Antacids, especially proton-pump inhibitors, and chemotherapy also increase risk.
Wide range of symptoms possible.
Profuse, watery diarrhea
Pseudomembranous colitis or toxic megacolon
It is unclear if Probiotics are helpful for primary or secondary prevention. Avoid use in patients who are immunosuppressed and in those with active fulminant CDI.
In refractory cases, stool transplants have been effective.