Encapsulated gram negative diplococci.
Normal flora. Humans are the reservoir.
Quadrivalent vaccine prevents disease by serogroups A/C/W-135/Y.
Occurs in outbreaks particularly in crowded settings.
Colonizer and cause of invasive disease:
Generally of little significance when cultured from nonsterile sites e.g. genital, pharynx.
Prophylaxis is indicated for:
Any household, child care or intimate contact
Medical personnel with contact w/ oral secretions within 7d on symptom onset
Travelers with exposure to respiratory secretions from index patient
Exposure to oral secretions = kissing, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, person performing endotracheal intubation or managing an ET tube
Prophylactic Regimens (Patients 15 yo+)
Ciprofloxacin 500 mg PO once
Rifampin 600 mg PO q12h x 2 days
Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM once
Prophylactic Regimens (Peds < 15 yo)
<1 month: Rifampin 5 mg/kg q12h PO x 2 days
≥ month: Rifampin 10 mg/kg q12h PO x 2 days
Less than 15 y.o: Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM x 1